Congenital development of lymphoid cells (2023)

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Congenital development of lymphoid cells

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The innate lymphoid cell family



Proteins released extracellularly by immune cells to induce specific downstream effects in target structural and/or immune cells.


The process by which immune cells release granules into the extracellular space to initiate target cell death. These granules often contain cytotoxic proteins such as granzymes and perforins.


Enzymes that catalyze the exchange of short DNA segments between 2 longer strands of DNA. They serve to control gene expression or to increase the variability of gene expression.

NK cells

NK cells are strictly dependent ontranscription factorEomes, but not T-bet, for his development.31IL-15 is required for the development and activation of NK cells. Although NK cell development has been studied in detail, the discovery of ILCs has complicated our understanding of NK cell development. In this review, we will discuss NK cell development in relation to ILC development.

Previous studies have shown that NK cells that develop during the fetal and neonatal periods in mice

Group 1 ILC

ILC1s rely on T-bet for their development but not Eomes.29Helper-type ILCs, including ILC1, are predominantly tissue-resident,34while NK cells are circulating cells. ILC1 tissue residency program may be driven by TGF-β signaling35and homologous transcription factor Blimp-1 in T cells.36As mentioned above, the distinction between ILC1 and NK cell lines is controversial. Many of the markers used to define immature NK cells are now known as mature ILC1 markers.31So it is

classic model ofinfopoiese

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) differentiate intohematopoietic multipotent progenitorsincluding common myeloid progenitors and lymphoid-initiated multipotent progenitors (LMPP).61,62LMPPs identify themselves as LinequipmentHelloSca-1HelloFlt3+CD127Bone marrow (BM) cells primarily primed for lymphoid lineage development, but retaining residual myeloid potential. In the classic scheme ofinfopoiese, LMPPs first differentiate into Common Lymphoid Progenitors (CLPs),63,64who identify themselves as Linequipment

CLI precursors in peripheral tissues

during the fetal period,Arginase-1CLI-expressing progenitors migrate from the fetal liver to the intestine and accumulate at sites of organogenesis in lymphoid tissue to give rise to CLIs.79ILCPs appear to be present in the mesentery, intestines and fetal lungs.80and include a CCR9+Faction that evolves preferentially on ILC2s. fetal mesenteric platelet growth factor receptor α (PDGFRa)+gp38+Mesenchymal cells strongly express IL-33 and can support ILC2 differentiation.

A thymic pathway of ILC development?

the expression ofTcrgThe genes were originally described in NK cells.87The TCRγ genes were rearranged in a fraction of NK cells from the spleen of newborn and adult mice. There is a critical dependence on the specialized microenvironment of the thymus toTCR gene rearrangement. As expected, the TCRγ gene rearrangement in NK cells was also thymus-dependent, as it did not occur in nude mice. These results suggest that immature thymocytes may make a small contribution to the peripheral NK cell pool.

Development of ILC2 in inflammation and infection.

ILC2 counts are elevated in the peripheral blood of patients with allergy and asthma.sixteen,93After allergen challenge, patients with mild-to-moderate eosinophilic asthma show increased ILC2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.94while at the same time these patients have a reduced ILC2 in their blood. ILC2s are also increased in the lungs of mice treated with fugal allergens.Alternating Current Alternating Current, which causes inflammation of the airways.95,96In this model, the transport of BM ILC2P to the lungs is shown in a


NFIL3 is a leucine zipper basic region transcription factor and a key regulator of ILC lineage development.71,111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116 It is necessary for the development of αLP, NKP, CHILP, ILCP and ILC2P and, consequently, NK cells and all ILCs. EILP ExpressNfil3jID2.67NFIL3 regulates the Id2 locus and only transient expression of NFIL3 before induction of Id2 expression is required for ILC lineage specification and development. NFIL3 also joinspoisonousTOX promoter encoding,


RUNX1 is required for HSC development as well as LMPP and CLP.129,130ILCPs highly express RUNX1, RUNX3, and the common binding partner of RUNX proteins CBF-β (cbfb).86,131Specific hematopoietic cell knockdown of RUNX3 leads to accumulation of ILC1 and ILC3 progenitors identified as LinCD127+GATA-3e TRORγtIntestinal lamina propria cells, reduced ILC1 and absence of ILC3.86RUNX3 is not required for ILC2 development. NK cell specific deletion of RUNX3 or

(Video) “Development of T Lymphocytes” by Dr. Christian LeGuern

epigenetic regulation

Regulomas are regions of chromatin that serve as enhancers or repressors of genes accessible to transcription factors. The regulomas that dictate ILC lineage specification are primarily driven by RUNX and transformation-specific transcription factors E26.148, 149, 150 activated.

nutrient signaling

Nutrient signaling plays an important role in the development of ILCs and lymphoid organs. Retinoic acid, which is a metabolite of vitamin A, directly regulates the expression of RORγt and the size of the fetal LTi cell population, as well as the development of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches.151Vitamin A deficiency results in smaller and fewer Peyer's patches and lymph nodes and decreased immune capacity later in life. Retinoic acid also controls the size of the adult ILC3 population and its IL-22 production.152and therefore immunity

ILC Human Development

Human NK cells differ from helper ILCs in their expression of Eomes andMHC-I- binding receptors, including killer immunoglobulin-like receptors.158, 159, 160 are further subdivided into CD56darkCD16+e CD56infernoCD16cells. CD56darkCD16+NK cells predominate in blood, bone marrow, spleen, and lungs, while most NK cells in lymph nodes and intestine are CD56.infernoCD16.161Helper-like ILCs express CD200R1 and include T-bet+equipmentILC1, READY-3+CRTH2+equipment+/-ILC2 e RORγt+equipment+ILC3s. There are many

expression of gratitude

We thank Dr. Pamela S Ohashi for her support. Thanks to Jonathan M. Feldstein for his help in preparing the character.

Cited by (10)

  • Crosstalk between macrophages and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in disease

    2022, International Immunopharmacology

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and macrophages are tissue-resident cells that play important roles in tissue immune homeostasis and immune regulation. ILCs are primarily distributed on mammalian barrier surfaces to ensure immunity or tissue homeostasis following environmental, microbial, or host stimulation. Their complex relationships with various organs allow them to respond quickly to changes in environmental conditions and organ homeostasis, such as infection and tissue damage. Gradually emerging evidence suggests that ILCs also play complex and diverse roles in macrophage development, homeostasis, polarization, inflammation, and viral infection. In turn, macrophages also determine the fate of ILCs to some extent, suggesting that the crossing of networks between these interactions is a determining factor of the immune response. More work is needed to better define the crosstalk of ILCs with macrophages in different tissues and how it is affected in inflammation and other diseases. Here we summarize current research on functional interactions between ILCs and macrophages and consider the potential therapeutic utility of these interactions for the benefit of human health.

  • New insights into the role of the vitamin D receptor in immune system development and function

    2022, Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Immune cells express the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and are therefore targets for vitamin D. Vdr protein is easily measured in the kidney using anti-Vdr antibodies and western blotting. It is much more difficult to measure VDR protein in the spleen due to the low expression of VDR in resting immune cells. To measure VDR expression more sensitively, the Cre enzyme was inserted into the third exon of the VDR gene and a reporter mouse was created that irreversibly expresses tdTomato. Mice expressing one copy of the VDRCre gene were confirmed as VDR +/- and mice expressing two copies were VDR -/-. First characterization of VDR +/-/VDR immune cellsTomato+Mice showed no effect of hemizygosity for VDR on immune cell abundance compared to wild-type VDR+/+ (WT) VDR+/+ littermates. tdTomato has been shown to be highly expressed in bone marrow (BM) and thymus immune cell progenitors. In the periphery, monocytes, neutrophils and macrophages showed very high expression of tdTomato+ (88-98%), while lymphocytes ranged from 60-70% tdTomato+. Tissue resident innate lymphoid cells (ILC) 1 and 3 had approximately 60-80% tdTomato+, while ILC2 cells had very low tdTomato expression. VDR stimulationTomato+Splenocytes showed that CD4+ and CD8+ TdTomato cells proliferated more than their tdTomato+ counterparts. T cells were sorted by tdTomato+ and tdTomato- and then activated for 72 hours. Sorted tdTomato+ T cells did not express VDR protein up to 72 hours after activation. T cells sorted by tdTomato proliferated more than T cells sorted by tdTomato+. Interestingly, activation of tdTomato T cells failed to induce new expression of tdTomato. The data suggest that an early immune progenitor expresses the VDR. In the periphery, neutrophils and monocytes are almost all tdTomato+, while some immune cells (ILC2 and some T cells) may never express VDR.

  • Congenital lymphoid cells and gastrointestinal diseases

    2021, Journal of Genetics and Genomics


    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of innate immune cells that, along with the skin and mucous membranes, represent the first line of defense of the immune system. ILCs also play an important role in maintaining homeostasis in the body, particularly in the complex and diverse environment of the gut. ILCs respond to different microenvironments and maintain homeostasis directly or indirectly through cytokines. As a result, ILCs with complex and pleiotropic features are associated with many gastrointestinal diseases. Their ability to switch between these subgroups causes them to act as both promoter and inhibitor cells, affecting homeostasis and disease progression for relief or worsening. With these special properties, ILCs can theoretically be used in the new generation of immunotherapy as an alternative and complement to current tumor therapy. Our review article summarizes the characteristics of ILCs in terms of category, function, and relationship to intestinal homeostasis and gastrointestinal disease. Furthermore, possible tumor immunotherapies with ILC are also discussed, in order to shed light on the perspectives of immunotherapy.

See all articles cited in Scopus

Featured Articles (6)

  • investigative article


    Human innate lymphoid cells

    Immunology Letters, Band 179, 2016, S. 2-8

    Interest in innate lymphoid cells (ILC) has increased rapidly over the past decade. ILCs comprise different types of cells that collectively participate in host protection against pathogens and tumor cells and in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. Studies in rats have allowed a broad characterization of ILC function and its developmental requirements. In humans, all mature ILC subgroups have been characterized and their role in the pathogenesis of certain diseases is emerging. However, limited information on ILC human development is still available. In fact, only cell progenitors linked to NK cells or ILC3 have been described. Here, we review the most recent results in human mature ILC and discuss its function and tissue location. In addition, we summarize available data on the development of human ILC.

  • investigative article

    The winners of the 2021 AAAAI Foundation Instructor Development Awards

    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Band 147, Nummer 5, 2021, S. 1629-1633

  • investigative article

    Innate lymph cells: from helpers to killers

    Current Opinion in Immunology, Band 68, 2021, S. 28-33

    Five subgroups of ILC, lymphoid tissue-inducing cells (LTi), cytotoxic NK cells and non-cytotoxic helper ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 are detailed. To date, the main focus has been on the potent cytokine production by helper ILCs and their plastic nature, which allows them to alter function and phenotype based on environmental changes. Recent advances in the field indicate the existence of cytotoxic helper ILCs distinct from conventional NK cells. In humans, these cytotoxic ILCs can evolve from conventional helper ILCs, while in mice this remains to be elucidated. In this review, we discuss the identification, evolution, and function of helper cytotoxic ILC subsets in humans and mice.

  • investigative article

    (Video) Emerging roles of lymphoid cells in critical illness

    Innate lymphoid cells: new insights into function and development

    Current Opinion in Immunology, Band 32, 2015, S. 71-77

    Here, we illustrate the complexity of ILC subsets and discuss emerging functions, with a focus on emerging mechanisms of crosstalk with other immune cells and the microbiota. In addition, we highlight recent insights into the evolution of ILCs, including the common paths they share, as well as points of divergence between ILC groups and subgroups.

  • investigative article

    Differentiation of type 1 ILC from a common progenitor to all helper-like innate lymphoid cell lineages

    Cell, Vol. 157, Issue 2, 2014, pp. 340-356

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a newly recognized group of lymphocytes that play important roles in protecting epithelial barriers against infection and maintaining organ homeostasis. ILCs have been classified into three distinct groups whose transcriptional pathways and effector functions are remarkably similar to the various subgroups of helper T cells. Here we identify a common Id2-expressing parent for all "helper-like" ILC lines that express the interleukin-7 receptor, CHILP. Interestingly, CHILP differentiated into ILC2 and ILC3 lineages, but not into common natural killer (cNK) cells, which were thought to be an ILC1 subset. Instead, CHILP resulted in a peculiar NKp46+IL-7Rα+ILC lineage that required T-bet for specification and differed from cNK cells or other ILC lines. Such ILC1 co-produced high levels of IFN-γ and TNF and protected against infection by the intracellular parasite.Toxoplasma gondii. Our data greatly improves our understanding of ILC differentiation and provides evidence for a new ILC strain that protects barrier surfaces from intracellular infection.

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    ILC-Poiesis: Production of ILC tissue from blood

    Immunity, Volume 46, Number 3, 2017, pp. 344-346

    The development of human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) remains poorly characterized. In a recent edition ofto cell, Lim et al. show that human peripheral blood CD117+ILCs harbor ILC precursors (ILCPs) derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Peripheral blood ILCPs can generate all subsets of ILC in vivo and in vitro.

    (Video) T cell Immunodeficiencies


What is lymphoid development? ›

Lymphocyte development is a highly regulated process in which immature lymphoid progenitors are generated from HSCs and then mature through defined stages of differentiation. For example, lymphoid-primed multipotential precursors (LMPP) still maintain some myeloid potential but ultimately produce lymphoid progeny.

What is the origin of lymphoid cells? ›

The distribution of lymphoid tissues in the body. Lymphocytes arise from stem cells in bone marrow, and differentiate in the central lymphoid organs (yellow), B cells in bone marrow and T cells in the thymus.

What are the 4 types of lymphoid cells? ›

There are three major types of lymphoid cells: B-cells, T-cells, and Natural Killer (NK) cells. B-cells develop in the bone marrow and are responsible for production of immunoglobulins (a.k.a. antibodies).

Are the lymphoid organs well developed at birth? ›

All the lymphoid organs are well developed before birth. When tissues are inflamed, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells. If even a small part of the spleen is left in a ten-year-old child, it will most likely regenerate itself.

Is lymphoid cancerous? ›

Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type.

What is meant by lymphoid cells? ›

(LIM-foh-site) A type of immune cell that is made in the bone marrow and is found in the blood and in lymph tissue. The two main types of lymphocytes are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes make antibodies, and T lymphocytes help kill tumor cells and help control immune responses.

What are the three main types of lymphoid cells? ›

There are three main types of lymphocytes: B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells. Two of these types of lymphocytes are critical for specific immune responses. They are B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells).

What are the two main lymphoid cells? ›

There are two main types lymphocytes: T cells and B cells. B cells produce antibody molecules that can latch on and destroy invading viruses or bacteria.

What will lymphoid cells form? ›

All lymphocytes originate from a common lymphoid progenitor cell known as a lymphoblast, before differentiating into their distinct lymphocyte types. The formation of lymphocytes is known as lymphopoiesis. B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bone marrow, while T cells migrate to and mature in thymus.

What is the main function of the lymphoid cells? ›

It filters and monitors our blood content. It produces cells called T-lymphocytes which circulate around the body. These cells are important for cell mediated response to an immune challenge, such as may occur when we have an infection.

Is lymphoid and lymphoma same? ›

Lymphocytic leukemias (also known as lymphoid or lymphoblastic leukemia) start in the cells that become lymphocytes. Lymphomas are also cancers that start in those cells.

Is lymphoid a cell tissue or organ? ›

Lymphoid organs are comprised of multiple tissues forming a distinct structure in the body. Primary lymphoid organs include bone marrow and the thymus. Lymphocytes and other blood cells are produced in red bone marrow while lipids are stored for long-term energy in yellow bone marrow.

What week of development does lymphoid tissue begin to develop? ›

Lymphatic tissue begins to develop by the end of the fifth week of embryonic development.

Are lymphocytes present at birth? ›

Maturation of the immune system starts early in fetal life. Lymphocytes of the B series develop in the liver by 9 weeks' gestation and are present in the blood and spleen by 12 weeks.

What are lymphatic disorders in newborns? ›

A lymphatic malformation is a problem that your child is born with (congenital). This means that the issue happened during pregnancy, when your baby was forming. When the lymphatic vessels formed, they may have become blocked and enlarged. This could cause lymphatic fluid to build up.

Are lymphoid cells normal? ›

Lymphocytes are white blood cells that help the body fight infection and disease. The normal range for an adult is between 1,000 and 4,800 lymphocytes per microliter (µL) of blood. The immune system is a complex network of cells known as immune cells that include lymphocytes.

What are the warning signs of lymphoma? ›

Signs and symptoms of lymphoma may include:
  • Painless swelling of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin.
  • Persistent fatigue.
  • Fever.
  • Night sweats.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Unexplained weight loss.
  • Itchy skin.
Dec 14, 2022

What is the most common lymphoid malignancy? ›

The most common types of B-cell lymphomas are listed below.
  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) ...
  • Follicular lymphoma. ...
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) /small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) ...
  • Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) ...
  • Marginal zone lymphomas. ...
  • Burkitt lymphoma. ...
  • Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia)
Jan 29, 2019

Where are lymphoid cells? ›

They can be found in lymphoid tissues such as lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and bone marrow. In the thymus gland, for instance, the lymphoid cells undergo a process of maturation and education prior to release as T cells into the circulation.

What is an example of lymphoid cell? ›

Several types of cells are included in the lymphoid system—for example, reticular cells and white blood cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes. Reticular cells provide structural support, since they produce and maintain the thin networks of fibres that are a framework for most lymphoid organs.

What are the lymphoid cells and where are they produced? ›

Lymphocytes are mature, infection-fighting cells that develop from lymphoblasts, a type of blood stem cell in the bone marrow. Lymphocytes are the main cells that make up lymphoid tissue, a major part of the immune system. Lymphoid tissue is found in lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, the tonsils, and adenoids.

What is the difference between lymphatic and lymphoid? ›

Lymph is very similar to blood plasma, in that it contains waste products and cellular debris, together with bacteria and proteins. The cells of the lymph are mostly lymphocytes. Associated lymphoid organs are composed of lymphoid tissue, and are the sites either of lymphocyte production or of lymphocyte activation.

What diseases are associated with the lymphatic system? ›

Other lymphatic and venous disorders include:
  • Filariasis, Podoconiosis. ...
  • Gorham's Disease. ...
  • Intestinal lymphangiectasia. ...
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) ...
  • Lymphangiomatosis. ...
  • Protein-losing Enteropathy (PLE)

Are lymphoid cells immune cells? ›

Abstract. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are immune cells that lack a specific antigen receptor yet can produce an array of effector cytokines that in variety match that of T helper cell subsets.

What are the 6 lymphatic organs? ›

This system includes the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels (a network of thin tubes that carry lymph and white blood cells). Lymphatic vessels branch, like blood vessels, into all the tissues of the body.

Where do lymphoid cells mature? ›

Some lymphocytes migrate to the thymus, where they mature into T cells; others remain in the bone marrow, where—in humans—they develop into B cells.

What is the most important lymphoid organ? ›

The primary lymphoid organs are the red bone marrow, in which blood and immune cells are produced, and the thymus, where T-lymphocytes mature. The lymph nodes and spleen are the major secondary lymphoid organs; they filter out pathogens and maintain the population of mature lymphocytes.

What is the most common early symptom of lymphoma? ›

The most common sign of lymphoma is a lump or lumps, usually in the neck, armpit or groin. These lumps are swollen lymph nodes, sometimes known as 'glands'. Usually, they're painless. Fatigue is different to normal tiredness.

Where do you itch with lymphoma? ›

Many individuals experience this itchiness in their hands, lower legs or feet, while others feel it throughout their entire body. Patients often report that the itching tends to worsen while they are lying in bed at night.

Does lymphoma show up in blood work? ›

Blood tests aren't used to diagnose lymphoma, though. If the doctor suspects that lymphoma might be causing your symptoms, they might recommend a biopsy of a swollen lymph node or other affected area.

In which organ of human body are the lymphocyte cells formed? ›

Lymphocytes develop in the thymus and bone marrow (yellow), which are therefore called central (or primary) lymphoid organs.

What is the main function of lymphoid? ›

Since the function of the lymphoid organs is to filter and trap invading pathogens and present them to immune competent cells, the high levels of viremia seen following primary infection presumably lead to an efficient infection of the lymphoid tissue with HIV or SIV.

What are the stages of lymphocyte development? ›

Lymphocyte Development and Structure
Stages of T-Cell Development
Cell TypeDevelopmental Steps
Double negativeRearrangement of the β T-cell receptor chain Proliferation
Double positiveRearrangement of the α T-cell receptor chain Expression of both CD4 and CD8 Positive selection against both class I and class II MHC
3 more rows
Sep 20, 2020

What causes lymphoid? ›

Swollen lymph nodes usually occur as a result of infection from bacteria or viruses. Rarely, swollen lymph nodes are caused by cancer. Your lymph nodes, also called lymph glands, play a vital role in your body's ability to fight off infections.

Where is lymphoid cells found in the body? ›

Types of white blood cells

Lymphocytes are the main cells that make up lymphoid tissue, a major part of the immune system. Lymphoid tissue is found in lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, the tonsils, and adenoids. It's also scattered throughout the digestive and respiratory systems and the bone marrow.

What are the 3 important lymphoid organs? ›

Primary lymphoid organs: These organs include the bone marrow and the thymus. They create special immune system cells called lymphocytes. Secondary lymphoid organs: These organs include the lymph nodes, the spleen, the tonsils and certain tissue in various mucous membrane layers in the body (for instance in the bowel).

What is the first stage in development of at lymphocyte? ›

Lymphocyte development occurs in two phases. In the first phase, cells are developed in sufficient numbers to the stage at which they first express an antigen receptor. Obviously, this phase is independent of any influence by antigen, because the antigen receptors have not yet been made.

Where does development of lymphocytes take place? ›

The production of new lymphocytes, or lymphopoiesis, takes place in specialized lymphoid tissues—the central lymphoid tissues—which are the bone marrow in the case of B cells and the thymus for T cells.

What is the origin and maturation of lymphocytes? ›

Types and functions of lymphocytes

Both originate from stem cells in the bone marrow and are initially similar in appearance. Some lymphocytes migrate to the thymus, where they mature into T cells; others remain in the bone marrow, where—in humans—they develop into B cells.

How do you treat lymphoid? ›

If your swollen lymph nodes are tender or painful, you might get some relief by doing the following:
  1. Apply a warm compress. Apply a warm, wet compress, such as a washcloth dipped in hot water and wrung out, to the affected area.
  2. Take an over-the-counter pain reliever. ...
  3. Get adequate rest.
Oct 14, 2021

What kind of doctor treats lymphatic system? ›

What is a lymphologist? Lymphologists are doctors who are specially trained in the diagnosis of and therapy for diseases of the lymphatic system.


1. Thyroid Gland Anatomy - (embryology, blood supply, venous drainage, innervation, histology)
(Armando Hasudungan)
2. Pediatric & Congenital Heart Talks: Lymphatic System and Its Importance in Congenital Heart Disease
(The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia)
3. Lymphoid System Immunity
(ETSU Online)
4. Cell-Mediated (Cellular) Immunity [aka T-cell immunity] | Physiology Lectures
(Medicosis Perfectionalis)
5. B cell Immunodeficiencies
(Maureen Richards Immunology & Microbiology)
6. Lymph Flow and How it Regulates Lymphatic Function - Josh Scallan, PhD - LE&RN Symposium
(Lymphatic Education & Research Network (LE&RN))


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